Starting a Business in Pennsylvania – A Comprehensive Guide

How to Start a Business in Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania could be an excellent choice if you’ve been nurturing a business idea and considering where to bring it to life. This blog aims to be a comprehensive guide, providing valuable insights and crucial information for anyone looking to start a business in this state. We’ll dive into the benefits, challenges, legal procedures, and many other aspects you must consider. This invaluable resource is designed to guide your entrepreneurial journey in Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania skyline with friendly climate for starting a businessTop Two Benefits of Starting a Business in Pennsylvania

  1. Robust Economic Environment:  Pennsylvania boasts a diverse economy that spans various industries, including manufacturing, agriculture, and technology. This economic diversity offers multiple avenues for businesses to thrive and prosper. The state’s GDP ranks 6th in the nation, making it a substantial economic powerhouse.
  2. Supportive Business Infrastructure:  Pennsylvania provides various business incentives, like grants, low-interest loan programs, and tax credits. Moreover, the state has numerous resource centers and initiatives dedicated to helping new businesses succeed, including the Pennsylvania Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs).

Top Two Challenges When Starting a Business in Pennsylvania

  1. Regulatory Complexity:  While Pennsylvania supports businesses, its regulatory environment can be complex. Business owners must often comply with many state and local laws, making the process quite demanding.
  2. Workforce Skills Gap:  Despite having a large labor force, some business owners need help finding employees with specific skill sets. This skills gap, particularly in high-tech industries, can be a hurdle for businesses seeking qualified talent.

Starting a business is a big task, but we can help you succeed in Pennsylvania. We’ll give you the tools and information to begin your entrepreneurial journey.

Regulatory Factors and Taxes in Pennsylvania

Navigating the regulatory and taxation landscape is key to establishing your business in Pennsylvania. Understanding your business’s tax obligations is essential for planning your finances and ensuring compliance with state laws.

Pennsylvania’s corporate net income tax rate stands at 8.99%, one of the highest tax rates in the country. However, it’s important to note that the tax is applied to net income, meaning it’s calculated after all deductions, like the cost of goods sold and business expenses, are considered. Therefore, many businesses need to pay the full rate.

In terms of sales tax, Pennsylvania levies a 6% state sales tax on most retail sales and certain services. However, there are exceptions. For example, food (except for ready-to-eat), most clothing items, and prescription drugs are not taxed. Additionally, certain counties impose an additional local sales tax. For instance, in Allegheny County, the rate is an extra 1%, and in Philadelphia, it’s an additional 2%, making the total sales tax 8%.

Aside from the corporate net income tax and sales tax, Pennsylvania also imposes an Unemployment Compensation (UC) tax on employers. The rates vary depending on the number of employees and the stability of the workforce, but for new businesses, the rate is typically 3.6890% on the first $10,000 of each employee’s wages.

How do I Choose a Business Structure?

There are five primary types of businesses. Each type of business entity is described below.

Sole Proprietorship

A business owned and operated by one individual with no legal distinction between the business and the owner. The owner is personally responsible for all debts and liabilities of the business. Most small business owners in  Pennsylvania use this business type.

Limited Liability Company (LLC)

A flexible business organization that combines the liability protection of a corporation with the tax benefits and simplicity of a partnership. Owners of an LLC are called members, and their assets are typically protected from the debts and liabilities of the business. You have the flexibility to define many aspects of how your business will work in your Articles of Organization.


A type of corporation allows for pass-through taxation, meaning that profits and losses are passed through to the shareholders and reported on their tax returns. S-Corporations are limited to 100 shareholders and must meet specific eligibility requirements. An S-Corp can be particularly advantageous if the founders or investors have other income. If the business doesn’t generate a profit in any year, the shareholders can use the losses from a tax perspective.


A separate legal entity from its owners (shareholders) means that the corporation can enter into contracts, own assets, and sue or be sued. C-Corporations are subject to double taxation, meaning that the corporation and the shareholders are taxed on profits.

A Note About S-Corps and C-Corps

For both S-Corporations and C-Corporations, your business formation documents will include Articles of Incorporation, sometimes called a Corporate Charter.  The specific requirements and format of Articles of Incorporation can vary by jurisdiction. It is advisable to consult with a business attorney or online legal service such as Legal Zoom to ensure compliance with local laws and regulations when drafting and filing these documents.

Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)

A partnership that limits the personal liability of its partners. LLPs are typically used by professional service providers such as lawyers, accountants, and architects. Each partner is protected from the other partners’ wrongful acts, omissions, and negligence, but they may still be personally liable for their actions.

Distribution of Businesses

Business Type Percent of Businesses in  Pennsylvania
Sole Proprietorship 55-60%
Limited Liability Company (LLC) 15-20%
S-Corporation 10-12%
C-Corporation 3-5%
Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) 2-3%

These estimates reflect the diversity of business structures in Pennsylvania. Each business entity has its advantages and is chosen by business owners based on their unique needs and circumstances.

What is an Employer Identification Number – EIN?

Definition of an EIN or Employer Identification Number

When starting a business in the US, an Employer Identification Number (EIN) is necessary. The IRS gives This unique nine-digit number, making managing taxes easier for businesses. It can also be referred to as a Federal Tax Identification Number or Federal Employer Identification Number.

Do I Need One to Start a Business in Pennsylvania?

If you plan to start a business in Pennsylvania, you will likely need an EIN. This number is required when creating a business entity, hiring employees, obtaining business licenses, or opening a business bank account.

How Do I Get One?

Obtaining an EIN is a straightforward process. You can apply for it directly on the IRS website or send Form SS-4 via mail or fax. The online application process is quick and easy, and you will receive the number immediately upon completion. If you need further assistance, call the IRS at 1-800-829-4933 or visit their website at .

How to Start a Business in Pennsylvania – Important Registrations

Pennsylvania state capitol where business regulations and programs startRegistering My Business Name

The first step to starting your business journey in Pennsylvania is officially registering your business name with the Pennsylvania Department of State. You can contact them at (717) 787-1057 or visit their website at .

Registering a DBA (Doing Business As) If Relevant

If you plan to operate under a name different from your official registered business name, you must register a fictitious name. Pennsylvania has 67 counties, each having its local government services and regulations. To understand local rules and requirements, you can find a comprehensive directory of Pennsylvania’s local governments at

Registering for Payroll, State Payroll Taxes, and Unemployment Insurance

Pennsylvania businesses must establish an account with the Pennsylvania Department of Labor & Industry for state payroll taxes and unemployment compensation insurance. You can reach them at (717) 787-7679 or visit their website at .

Registering for Worker’s Compensation Insurance

Businesses in Pennsylvania are also obligated to provide workers’ compensation insurance.  If you use a  payroll service , they should also be able to provide worker’s comp.

Registering for Collecting Sales Tax

If you’re operating a business in Pennsylvania that will be collecting sales tax, you need to register for a sales, use, and hotel occupancy tax license. You can do this through the Pennsylvania Department of Revenue’s website: .

Registering for Income Tax

Businesses in Pennsylvania should register with the Pennsylvania Department of Revenue for corporate income state tax. You can reach them at (717) 787-1064 or visit their website at .

Permits for Starting a Business in Pennsylvania

Do I Need a Business Permit to Operate a Business in  Pennsylvania?

At the State Level:  To operate a business in Pennsylvania, you may need to obtain a state-level permit, license, or certification, depending on the nature of your business. The Pennsylvania Business One-Stop Shop is an office run by the state government that provides valuable knowledge, resources, and information for companies, regardless of size. They are the initial point of contact for businesses in Pennsylvania seeking development assistance and can assist with all stages of growth, including planning, start-up, operation, and expansion. You can visit their website at

Check With Your City:  City-specific permits and licenses may also be required in Pennsylvania. These requirements vary significantly from one city to another. As such, it’s crucial to check with your local city hall or city manager’s office for information tailored to your city. For example, if you plan to open a business in Philadelphia, visit the Philadelphia Business Services website at  or call (215) 683-2100.

Check Federal Requirements.  At the federal level, depending on the type of business you are starting, you may require specific licenses or permits. For instance, companies involved in agriculture, firearms, or alcohol may need federal licenses. To determine if your business requires a federal license or permit, visit the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) website at .

Check With Your County:  Each county in Pennsylvania may have its own set of requirements for permits and licenses. To ensure compliance with all county-level regulations, contacting your local county office is crucial. For instance, if your business is in Allegheny County, you can find more information at the county’s website  or by calling (412) 350-4114.

How do I learn about any special permits I need for my business?

To learn about any special permits your business might need, there are several resources to explore. The Pennsylvania Department of State offers detailed information about professional and occupational licensing, which can be found on their website: .

In addition, trade associations related to your specific business industry are valuable resources. These associations often have up-to-date information on regulations and licensing requirements pertinent to their field.

Additionally, legal advice can be helpful, particularly for complex industries. Business lawyers have extensive knowledge about permit requirements and can guide you through the process, ensuring you notice all essential licenses and permits.

Lastly, the Pennsylvania Chamber of Business and Industry is a resource that provides advice and guidance on starting a business, including information on necessary permits. Their website is , or you can reach them at (717) 720-5460. This organization offers various resources designed to support businesses of all sizes.

Financing Options for Entrepreneurs in Pennsylvania

Entrepreneurs often use personal assets or credit cards to finance their operations when starting a business. However, it’s important to understand that these aren’t the only options. In Pennsylvania, entrepreneurs can explore numerous other avenues for securing business financing to lessen personal financial risk and ensure a more stable footing for their business.

Financing a New Business

Securing credible funding sources is a critical step for any new business. While self-funding might be an initial solution, the growth and sustainability of a business often rely on securing external financing. Entrepreneurs can explore options like venture capitalists or angel investors’ grants and investments. These funding sources offer financial support enabling a business to grow, develop new products, and withstand early-stage challenges. However, it’s crucial to research to identify and approach the right funding source that aligns with the business’s needs and growth plans.

SBA Loans and Microloans

The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers various loan programs aimed at aiding small businesses in Pennsylvania and across the country. One such program is the SBA Microloan program. Microloans are designed to provide small, short-term loans to businesses, offering immediate access to funds. These loans can be used for various business expenses, from purchasing equipment and inventory to working capital. For more information, you can visit .

SBA Microlenders in Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania has several SBA-approved microlenders offering financial support to small businesses in need. These include:

Bridgeway Capital

Address: 707 Grant St #1920, Pittsburgh, PA 15219

Phone: (412) 201-2450


Neighborhood Community Development Fund        Mark Masterson        3923 Perrysville Avenue        Pittsburgh, PA 15214

Phone: (412) 322-0290

Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development (DCED)


MetroAction Inc.

Phone: (570) 341-0270


In Pennsylvania, some organizations offer micro-loans and other services, such as business mentoring and training to assist individuals in starting new businesses.

State and Local Grants and Incentives

Several state and local grants and incentives are available in Pennsylvania that can help small businesses establish or expand their operations. These organizations offer various programs providing financial assistance to businesses at different stages of growth in diverse sectors.

Angel Investor Groups

Angel Investor groups are essential in business financing, especially for early-stage businesses. They provide financial support, invaluable mentorship, guidance, industry connections, and sometimes even strategic direction. The significant aspect of angel investment is that it comes with fewer restrictions and gives the entrepreneur more control over their company than traditional loans.

In Pennsylvania, several Angel Investor Groups are actively investing in startups. For instance, the Pittsburgh Angel Venture Initiative (PAVI) focuses explicitly on early-stage businesses in the region. Similarly, groups like the Ben Franklin Technology Partners provide capital and expertise, helping startups navigate their industry landscape more efficiently.

For those looking to connect with Angel Investors in Pennsylvania, resources such as the Angel Capital Association (ACA) Directory and the Pennsylvania Angel Network are excellent starting points. Additionally, networking events and entrepreneurship forums serve as platforms to meet potential investors.

Please note that connecting with Angel Investors should be done with thorough preparation, including a well-researched business plan, clear financial projections, and an understanding of your market. Remember, an angel investor is not just a source of funds but could be a partner in your business growth journey.

Benefits of a Well-Structured Business Plan

In Pennsylvania, having a well-structured business plan carries substantial benefits for entrepreneurs and business owners. First, a robust business plan enables entrepreneurs to visualize their ideas, clarify their goals, and chart a strategic path to growth. This can be particularly beneficial in Pennsylvania, with diverse industries, including manufacturing, life sciences, agribusiness, technology, and more.

Understanding where your business fits in this dynamic landscape is crucial, and a well-structured business plan can help do just that.

Second, a comprehensive business plan is a tool for managing your business. It can help you track progress, maintain focus, and adapt to changes in Pennsylvania’s business environment. Changes often influence the business climate in the state in terms of regulations, economic conditions, and industry trends. A good business plan includes contingencies for these shifts, allowing businesses to react swiftly and efficiently.

Third, a well-structured business plan is invaluable when seeking funding. Whether you’re approaching Philadelphia banks, pitching to Pittsburgh’s angel investors, or applying for state-backed loans or grants, this holds. Potential financiers want to see that you have a clear plan for success, and a well-structured business plan does just that. Businesses can ensure comprehensive business planning using resources like Pennsylvania Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) or business planning software. These resources cover all essential components of a successful business plan.

Meeting Lender and Investor Expectations

Meeting lender and investor expectations are crucial for securing funding for your business. It’s about demonstrating the viability of your business idea, your understanding of the market, and your ability to generate returns on your investment. This is particularly important in Pennsylvania, which boasts a vibrant investment community and a variety of lending institutions.

As mentioned above, a solid business plan is the first step to meeting these expectations. This document should clearly articulate your business model, target market, competitive advantage, and financial projections. Lenders and investors want to understand how your business will make money, who your customers are, what sets you apart from competitors, and how you plan to scale.

The second step is showing your understanding of your financials. This involves presenting realistic revenue projections, a clear plan for resource allocation, and strategies for achieving profitability. Investors and lenders appreciate entrepreneurs who can talk confidently about their financials and justify their figures with market research and well-thought-out assumptions.

Lastly, remember that lenders and investors also invest in you as an entrepreneur. They want to see that you’re committed, knowledgeable, and capable of steering the business to success. So, along with showcasing your business, highlight your skills, experiences, and passion as part of your pitch. Pennsylvania offers resources like the Pennsylvania SBDCs, which provide training and consulting services to help entrepreneurs meet these expectations.

Where Can I Find a Mentor to Help Me Succeed?

Navigating Pennsylvania’s diverse business landscape can be significantly enhanced with the guidance of a seasoned mentor. With their wealth of experience, a mentor can offer invaluable advice, industry insights, and strategies tailored to Pennsylvania’s unique business environment.

Pennsylvania boasts a strong network of organizations dedicated to fostering the success of its entrepreneurs. Here are a few resources worth exploring:

Pennsylvania SCORE:  Affiliated with the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), Pennsylvania SCORE is an excellent source of free business mentoring. They also offer affordable workshops and many tools and resources to support businesses at every development stage.

Phone: (717) 397-3092


Pennsylvania SBDC:  Offering various services, including business plan development assistance and financial analysis, the Pennsylvania Small Business Development Centers (SBDC) is an invaluable resource for new and existing businesses.

Phone: (717) 787-3200


Ben Franklin Technology Partners:  This state-funded economic development organization provides entrepreneurs with the resources, networks, and funding to accelerate their business growth.

Phone: (610) 758-5200


Entrepreneurs’ Forum of Greater Philadelphia (EFGP):  This organization offers entrepreneurs mentorship opportunities and networking events, promoting the exchange of experiences and ideas.Contact Info:Email: Website:

By leveraging these resources, entrepreneurs can access the knowledge and support necessary to navigate Pennsylvania’s dynamic business environment successfully.

The Economy of Pennsylvania

Comprehending the economic landscape of Pennsylvania is crucial when launching a business. It helps entrepreneurs assess the viability of their business model, target the right consumer demographic, and tailor their offerings to meet the state’s economic climate and consumer trends.

Economic Overview

Pennsylvania has a well educated population for business leaders

Average Household Income

As per the U.S. Census Bureau, the median household income in Pennsylvania is $67,587. This is slightly below the national average, indicating a moderate income level. For businesses, this translates to competitively pricing their products or services and ensuring they provide value for money to appeal to the average Pennsylvanian household.

Average Level of Education

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, approximately 90.2% of Pennsylvanians aged 25 and over have completed high school, while about 30.7% hold a bachelor’s degree or higher. These figures suggest a relatively educated workforce, which can be advantageous for businesses, especially those in industries that require a high level of skill and education.

Consumer Spending per Capita

Consumer spending per capita in Pennsylvania is approximately $49,040 . This suggests that Pennsylvanians have a reasonable disposable income for goods and services, presenting business opportunities across various sectors.

Understanding these factors is crucial when starting a business in Pennsylvania. It provides an insight into the economic landscape, enabling entrepreneurs to make informed decisions that align with market trends and consumer behaviors.

Top Industries in Pennsylvania:

Pennsylvania’s economy is diverse and robust, with several key industries driving its growth. Manufacturing remains a vital sector, with the state ranking 6th in the nation for value added by manufacturing according to the National Association of Manufacturers. The state’s strong manufacturing sector includes food processing, machinery, and chemical manufacturing.

Healthcare and social assistance is another significant industry in Pennsylvania. The state is home to renowned healthcare institutions like the University of Pennsylvania Health System and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, contributing to the state’s strong healthcare sector.

In terms of technology, Pennsylvania has made strides in recent years. The state’s technology sector is growing rapidly, bolstered by world-class universities like Carnegie Mellon and the University of Pennsylvania that consistently produce highly skilled graduates in STEM fields.

Looking to the future renewable energy is an emerging industry in Pennsylvania. The state has made significant investments in wind and solar energy, positioning it as a leader in the renewable energy sector. Pennsylvania’s business outlook remains strong with a diverse economy and continued investments in growth sectors.

Network Your Way to Success When Starting a Business

Networking is a skill that most successful business owners have as one of their top talents. You can do it too! Networking is a great way to improve your success and grow your personal and business reputation. Here are a few ways to get started.

Identify Complementary Businesses:  In Pennsylvania’s diverse economic landscape, identifying complementary businesses can open doors for collaboration and mutual growth. By aligning with businesses that offer complementary services, companies can leverage shared customer bases, cross-promote each other’s offerings, and create synergies that benefit all parties involved.

Leverage Workforce Talent:  Pennsylvania’s relatively educated workforce is a valuable business asset. Companies can tap into this talent pool to drive innovation, enhance productivity, and gain a competitive edge. Moreover, businesses that invest in their employees through ongoing training and development can further amplify this advantage.

Collaborate with Industry Leaders:  Collaboration with industry leaders can provide businesses with invaluable insights, access to broader networks, and potential partnership opportunities. Such collaborations can accelerate growth, drive innovation, and enhance market visibility, particularly for startups and small businesses seeking to establish their footing in Pennsylvania’s competitive business environment.

Workforce and Talent

Understanding the demographics and dynamics of Pennsylvania’s workforce is crucial for businesses. It helps plan recruitment strategies, identify skill gaps, and understand labor market trends.

Unemployment Rate

Pennsylvania’s Unemployment Rate is 4.00%, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Minimum Wage

Pennsylvania’s minimum wage is $7.25 per hour, the same as the federal minimum. Businesses must consider this when planning their labor costs and wage structure.

Average Age and Demographics

Pennsylvania has a median age of 40.8 years, with females making up 51% of the population and males 49%. The age demographic is crucial for businesses to understand the potential market size and tailor their offerings to the prevalent age group’s needs and preferences.

Breakdown of People with Various Levels of Education

In terms of education, Pennsylvania residents aged 25 and above:

  • Approximately 31% hold a bachelor’s degree or higher
  • About 60% have a high school diploma or equivalent
  • Roughly 9.8% do not have a high school diploma

Understanding these factors is critical when planning a business in Pennsylvania. It provides a comprehensive view of the workforce, facilitating strategic decision-making in areas such as recruitment, training, and business development.

Top Areas of Skilled Workers for Residents of Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania is known for its diverse economy that spans various sectors, including healthcare, education, technology, manufacturing, and energy. Each industry is a powerhouse of skilled employment, offering myriad opportunities to workers across the state.

The healthcare sector in Pennsylvania is robust, housing some of the nation’s best hospitals and medical research institutions. This sector presents diverse opportunities, from clinical roles like doctors and nurses to non-clinical roles like healthcare administrators and billers. The ongoing demand for healthcare services and the rise of telemedicine and digital health platforms further broaden the scope for skilled workers in this sector.

Education is another significant area of skilled employment in Pennsylvania. The state has many highly-ranked public and private institutions, presenting many opportunities for educators, administrators, researchers, and support staff. In addition, the rise of e-learning and online education services has created new roles and opportunities within this sector.

The technology sector in Pennsylvania is rapidly growing, thanks to the state’s commitment to innovation and digital transformation. Software developers, data scientists, IT consultants, and cybersecurity experts are some of the roles in high demand within this sector. Furthermore, the proliferation of tech startups in the state provides ample opportunities for skilled professionals to contribute to the burgeoning tech ecosystem.

Pennsylvania’s manufacturing sector, known for its resilience, offers roles in machinery, food processing, and chemical manufacturing. Skilled workers such as production supervisors, quality control analysts, and industrial engineers have many opportunities to contribute to the state’s manufacturing output.

Finally, the energy sector in Pennsylvania, especially renewable energy, is an emerging area of skilled employment. The state’s focus on sustainable energy solutions has created jobs for energy consultants, solar panel installers, wind turbine technicians, and other green energy professionals.

In conclusion, Pennsylvania’s vibrant economy presents a rich tapestry of opportunities for skilled workers across various industries. Aspiring business owners and entrepreneurs can leverage this diverse talent pool to drive innovation, improve service delivery, and gain a competitive edge. At the same time, understanding where these skills are concentrated can provide invaluable insights into market trends and potential gaps, helping shape strategic decisions for business growth and sustainability.

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